Yemen: 50 years of war
Yemen has been in the throes of war since a revolution in 1962
Yemen has been in the throes of war since a revolution in 1962 that resulted in the ouster of the Mutawakkilite monarchy and the establishment of a republic.
The Anadolu Agency has outlined the conflicts that Yemen has been involved in during this period:
North Yemen Civil War (1962-1970)
A coup carried out by Commander Abdullah Sallal in 1962 against the newly crowned Imam Muhammad al-Badr sparked a war in the kingdom that had ruled northern Yemen for decades.
Sallal declared Yemen a republic during his presidency, while al-Badr escaped to Saudi Arabia, from which he tried to reinstate his rule.
The war continued for eight years between supporters of the republic and the dethroned imam before the two sides signed a Saudi-sponsored agreement under which the republic was recognized and the former enemies of the revolution were included in a power-sharing arrangement.
War of Independence (1963-1967)
In the south, an armed struggle began against the British occupation in 1963. The conflict ended with an agreement calling for South Yemen's independence in November 1967.
North-South Yemen War (1972)
Tension between the two neighbors led to a brief border conflict, but Arab mediation ended the war before either side was able to claim victory.
Yemeni War (1979)
Another conflict between north and south Yemen erupted seven years later, but this time southern troops managed to make major advances into the north.
An Arab initiative also ended this war and brought the two sides to the negotiating table, which resulted in the withdrawal of southern forces.
Yemeni Civil War (1994)
Following the reunification of Yemen in 1990, differences emerged between then-President Ali Abdullah Saleh and Vice-President Ali Salim al-Beidh, the last president of the former South Yemen, who accused Saleh of monopolizing power and marginalizing southerners.
A civil war between the north and south ensued, but Saleh – backed by several southern figures, including current President Abd Rabbu Mansour Hadi – managed to crush the southern forces and send al-Beidh and his entourage into exile.
Six wars of Saada (2004-2010)
Between 2004 and 2010, six conflicts erupted between government troops and Shiite Houthi militants, who grew stronger in the northern province of Sadaa despite the death of group leader Hussein al-Houthi in the first conflict.
Most of these conflicts ended in unannounced compromises, with both sides claiming victory.
War against Al-Qaeda (2001-Present)
The Yemeni government has waged a relentless war against the Al-Qaeda militant group, which continues to be active in the country's south. The group carried out a string of attacks that killed hundreds of army and police personnel and left thousands wounded.
In 2011 and 2012, the group managed to capture vast swathes of land in the southern Abyan province, as chaos swept Yemen following the ouster of autocratic Saleh, who had ruled Yemen for 33 years.
Dozens of suspected Al-Qaeda operatives have also been killed by U.S. drone strikes in recent years.
Houthi insurgency/Saudi-led intervention (2014-Present)
The Shiite Houthi militant group emerged as a political and military power in Yemen after taking control of capital Sanaa in September of 2014 before moving on to establish control over other parts of the country.
The rise of the Houthis has brought the Shiite group into conflict with local Sunni tribes and Al-Qaeda.
In February, the Houthis issued a constitutional declaration dissolving parliament and establishing a 551-member transitional council.
The declaration, however, was rejected by most of Yemen's political forces – along with some neighboring Gulf countries – which described it as a coup against constitutional legitimacy
Embattled President Hadi, meanwhile, fled Sanaa – where he had been placed under house arrest by the Houthis – to Aden in late February.
Upon his arrival in the southern city, Hadi dismissed as "null" and "illegitimate" all recently-issued Houthi decrees. He also retracted a resignation he had tendered earlier to Yemen's parliament.
The Gulf-backed president fled again to Saudi capital Riyadh one month later after Houthi militants advanced in force on his stronghold in Aden.
Last week, Saudi Arabia and its Arab allies began pounding Houthi positions across Yemen.
Riyadh says the strikes are in response to Hadi's appeals to "save the [Yemeni] people from the Houthi militias."
Some Gulf countries accuse Shiite Iran of supporting Yemen's Houthi insurgency.
Last Modified: 2015-04-02 09:00:45
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